附件甲
正确使用原著资料的详细指引

本节的例子多由香港中文大学社会学系编写及出版的指引改编,详情请浏览网址http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/soc/citation.pdf

性质轻微的不正确加注常被视作差劣的学术写作。严重的抄袭个案,包括蓄意误导读者等。

1. 逐字抄录原著资料
2. 意译及翻译
3. 改变次序及/或转换为/自点列方式
4. 引用专用名词或概念
5. 总结主要概念
6. 引用事实或他人的研究结果
7. 表格及图表资料

 

1. 逐字抄录原著资料

    原著(例1 Peter Berger, Invitation to Sociology (London: Penguin, 1991), p 87
    Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium.

    不正确引用(例1除首句外,其余为逐字抄录原文,并没有加上引号及附注。这明显是抄袭。
    Social members experience various modes of control exerted over them. Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium.

    不正确引用(例1):以下摘录同样没有加上引号及附注,也属于抄袭。
    Where human beings live or work in primary groups, very potent and subtle mechanisms of control are brought to bear upon the deviant members. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule and gossip.

    正确引用(例1:逐字抄录的原文须加上引号,并须加上附注,例如 [1]
    Social members experience various modes of control exerted over them. Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium” [1].

    正确引用(例1:如果只是摘录,省略的部分可用省略号(即......)表达,而原文仍须加上引号,并须加上附注,例如 [1]
    Where human beings live or work in ... primary groups, ... very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the ... deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium” [1].

    原著(例2:费孝通《乡土中国》香港:三联 1986,第28
    在西洋社会里,国家这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外,像一根柴捆在一束里,他们不能不把国家弄成个为每个分子谋利益的机构,于是他们有革命、有宪法、有法律、有国会等等。在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的天下,国是皇帝之家,界线从来就是不清不楚的。不过是从自己这个中心里推出去的社会势力里的一圈而已。所以可以着手的,具体的只有己,克己就成了社会生活中最重要的德性,他们不会去克群,使群不致侵略个人的权利。

    不正确引用(例2以下是逐字抄录上文的例子,属于抄袭。
    西洋社会及中国传统社会中的群己关系截然不同。在西洋社会里,国家这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外,像一根柴捆在一束里,他们不能不把国家弄成个为每个分子谋利益的机构,于是他们有革命、有宪法、有法律、有国会等等。在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的天下,国是皇帝之家,界线从来就是不清不楚的。不过是从自己这个中心推出去的社会势力里的一圈而已。所以可以着手的,具体的只有己,克己就成了社会生活中最重要的德性,他们不会去克群,使群不致侵略个人的权利。

    不正确引用(例2:以下是摘录的例子,也属于抄袭。
    在西洋社会里,国家这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外。在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的天下,界线从来就是不清不楚的,所以可以着手的,具体的只有己。

    正确引用(例2:以下是逐字抄录上文的例子,提及原作者原著,并加上了引号 和附注,例如1,乃属正确引用。
    费孝通在《乡土中国》一文中指出在西洋社会里,国家这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外,像一根柴捆在一束里,他们不能不把国家弄成个为每个分子谋利益的机构,于是他们有革命、有宪法、有法律、有国会等等。在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的天下,国是皇帝之家,界线从来就是不清不楚的,不过是从自己这个中心推出去的社会势力里的一圈而已。所以可以着手的,具体的只有己,克己就成了社会生活中最重要的德性,他们不会去克群,使群不致侵略个人的权利。」〔1

    正确引用(例2:以下是摘录的例子,加上了引号 和附注,例如 1 乃属正确引用。
    在西洋社会里,国家社会这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外,..... 在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的‘天下’..... 界线从来就是不清不楚的,..... 所以可以着手的,具体的只有己 .....」〔1〕


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2. 意译及翻译

    原著(例1Peter Berger, Invitation to Sociology (London: Penguin, 1991), p 87
    Where human beings live or work in compact groups, in which they are personally known and to which they are tied by feeling of personal loyalty (the kind that sociologists call primary groups), very potent and simultaneously very subtle mechanisms of control are constantly brought to bear upon the actual or potential deviant. These are the mechanisms of persuasion, ridicule, gossip and opprobrium.

    正确引用(例1:在以下的例子,原文文字曾被修改,甚至连句字结构亦改变,但保留了原文的意思,这是意译。如果没有注明资料来源,仍属于抄袭。
    In primary groups, in which people knows each other personally, deviants (actual or potential) are restrained by delicate mechanisms of social control, including persuasion, ridicule, gossip, opprobrium, etc.

    不正确引用(例1:以下是意译及翻译原文的例子。如果没有注明资料来源,仍属于抄袭。
    在社会学家称为初级团体的群体中,越轨者承受着极细微但强而有力的社会控制,例如说服、嘲笑、闲话及侮辱等。

    正确引用(例1:意译须加上附注,例如 [1],但无须加引号。
    In primary groups, in which people knows each other personally, deviants (actual and potential) are restrained by delicate mechanisms of social control, including persuasion, ridicule, gossip, opprobrium, etc. [1]

    原著(例2:费孝通《乡土中国》香港:三联 1986,第28
    在西洋社会里,国家这个团体是一个明显的也是唯一特出的群己界线。在国家里做人民的无所逃于这团体之外,像一根柴捆在一束里,他们不能不把国家弄成个为每个分子谋利益的机构,于是他们有革命、有宪法、有法律、有国会等等。在我们传统里群的极限是模糊不清的天下,国是皇帝之家,界线从来就是不清不楚的。不过是从自己这个中心里推出去的社会势力里的一圈而已。所以可以着手的,具体的只有己,克己就成了社会生活中最重要的德性,他们不会去克群,使群不致侵略个人的权利。

    不正确引用(例2:以下是意译的例子,未有附注,属抄袭行为。
    西方社会中团体与个人之关系是清晰的,这尤其反映在国家这团体与个人的关系上。而中国传统社会中团体与个人的关系从来都是含糊不清的,国家是皇帝的家族的延伸,因此不存在西方所谓的个人从团体中解放的问题,孔子所称道的「克己」是唯一的社会道德。

    正确引用(例2:以下是意译的例子,加上附注,属正确引用。
    西方社会中团体与个人之关系是清晰的,这尤其反映在国家这团体与个人的关系上。而中国传统社会中团体与个人的关系从来都是含糊不清的,国家是皇帝的家族的延伸,因此不存在西方所谓的个人从团体中解放的问题,孔子所称道的「克己」是唯一的社会道德。〔1〕


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3. 改变次序及/或转换 为/自点列方式

假设原著是以点列方式写成的。

    原著(例3Anthony Giddens, Sociology (Cambridge: Polity Press. 2nd ed., 1993) p 529-30
    The European powers acquired colonies for a number of reasons:

    1. Colonial possessions added to the political influence and power of the parent country and provided sites for military bases.
    2. Most Westerners also saw colonialism as a civilizing enterprise, helping upgrade native peoples from their "primitive" conditions ...
    3. There was an important economic motive. From the early years of Western expansion, food, raw materials and other goods were taken from the colonized areas to full western economic development ...


    不正确引用(例3:以下意译更改了原文三点的数字次序,如果没有注明资料来源,仍属于抄袭。
    The European powers acquired colonies for
    (1) economic expansion;
    (2) exercise of political influence;
    (3) civilization of the "native" people

    不正确引用(例3:以下意译将点列形式转为文字陈述,如果没有注明资料来源,仍属于抄袭。
    The colonization of "primitive" societies by Europe serves several purposes: economic expansion, exercise of political influence and civilization of the "native" peoples.


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4. 引用专用名词或概念

    原著(例4 Erving Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and other Inmates. (1968, Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin), p 15-16
    Every institution captures something of the time and interest of its members and provides something of a world for them; in brief, every institution has encompassing tendencies. When we review the different institutions in our Western society, we find some that are encompassing to a degree discontinuously greater than the ones next in line. Their encompassing or total character is symbolized by the barrier to social intercourse with the outside and to departure that is often built right into the physical plant, such as locked doors, high walls, barbed wire, cliffs, water, forests, or moors. These establishments I am calling total institutions [italics original], and it is their general characteristics I want to explore.

    不正确引用(例4:以下例子引用了专用名词「total institutions」而未有附注。如果没有注明资料来源,属于抄袭。
    Hospitals are total institutions, the public access to which is strictly denied.

    正确引用(例4:引用专用名词时须提及原作者,并加上引号及附注,例如 [1]
    Hospitals are what Goffman calls "total institutions", which is "symbolized by the barrier to social intercourse with the outside…" [1].

    正确引用(例4:以下是另一种正确的引用方式。
    Hospitals are, in Goffman's famous term, total institutions, the public access to which is strictly denied [1].


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5. 总结主要概念

    原著(例5 Lau, Siu-kai. Society and Politics in Hong Kong. (1982, Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press).
    (The original source first introduced some key concepts.)

    不正确引用(例5:以下段落总结了原文的主要概念,惟让别人以为概念属作者原创,这属于抄袭。
    Hong Kong people can meet their economic needs mainly through supports from their familial groups. As such, they have no needs to press the government for provision of social welfare, and this accounts for the political apathy of Hong Kong people and thereby the political stability of Hong Kong.

    正确引用(例5:须标示文中的主要概念是引用自资料来源。
    According to Lau [1], Hong Kong people can meet their economic needs mainly through supports from their familial groups. As such, they have no needs to press the government for provision of social welfare, and their accounts for the political apathy of Hong Kong people and thereby the political stability of Hong Kong.

    正确引用(例5:以下是另一种正确的引用方式。虽然文中并未提及原作者,但加上附注以显示概念是引用的。
    Hong Kong people can meet their economic needs mainly through supports from their familial groups. As such, they have no needs to press the government for provision of social welfare, and their accounts for the political apathy of Hong Kong people and thereby the political stability of Hong Kong [1].


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6. 引用事实或他人的研究结果

    正确引用(例6:引用(未有明确来源的)事实时须注明资料来源。
    A total of 58 agreements guaranteeing paid holidays had been signed by the unions in Britain in 1920. By the mid-20's there were 16-17 percent of the labour-force who received paid holidays [1].

    原著(例7Thomas T. P. Wong and Lui Tai-lok. From One Brand of Politics to One Brand of Political Culture. Hong Kong: occasional paper no. 10. (1992, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong). p 26
    When asked if they feel themselves belonging to a class, 79% of our respondents said 'yes'; 19 said 'no', and only 2% answered 'don't know'.

    正确引用(例7:引用研究结果时须注明资料来源。
    Wong and Lui [1] demonstrate that nearly 80% of their respondents feel themselves belonging to a class.

    正确引用(例8:即使研究结果不涉及研究数据,也须注明资料来源。
    In countries where the religiously orthodox differ from modernists in their economic beliefs, the orthodox are far more likely to be to the left of modernists than to be right [1].


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7. 表格及图表资料

如表格或图表所载资料并非由作者本人收集,必须注明资料来源。

    正确引用(例9
    Table 2.6. Growth in the value of world exports by major product groups, 1985-93.

    [table]

    Source: Ref [1].


    正确引用(例10
    [graph]

    Figure 6. The annual GDP growth in Hong Kong, 1960-1990.

    Source: Ref [1].


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