Newsletter No. 3174

第 317 期 2008 年 5 月 4 日 No. 317 4 May 2008 第三一七期 二零零八年五月四日 No. 317 4 May 2008 「70年代是道堂发展的转捩点,随着 香港经济起飞,市民收入增加,道堂藉 着超度法事的服务,收入大大增加;再 加上人口膨胀,政府无法提供足够的骨 灰龛,道堂逐渐为市民提供安置先人 灵位及定期供奉的服务,从而获得可 观的收益。有了这些资源,道教团体更 创办学校和安老院,提供教育和慈善 服务。」 黎教授说:「由此可见,纵使香港经过长 期的西方殖民统治,并发展成现代化和 国际化的城市,然而,除非是接受了别的 宗教信仰,大多数中国人仍然抱着『阴 安阳乐』的信念,亲人过世,就采用本土 道教仪式。道教礼仪传统在香港这个多 元化的中国人社会,不单继续存在,还 为现代人在整合生死祸福、超越苦难的 人生终极问题上,提供解脱的方法和答 案,为我们提供了许多中国宗教精神价 值,道教实在是研究和理解香港社会文 化的宝贵资源。」 道教之道 毕业于中大宗教系的黎教授,求学时曾 修读关于道教的课程,但只觉杂乱无 章,无从入手,故无甚兴趣。其后,他负 笈美国芝加哥大学,原本主修宗教心理 学,岂料攻读「中国宗教」一科时,惊觉 法国和日本的汉学学者早在百年前已开 始系统地研究道教。在他们眼中,研究道 教是了解中国人宗教世界的钥匙。 教是中国土生土长的宗教, 早于东汉时期形成,已成为 中国人信仰文化的重要部分。道教是唯 一以行业的专业性作为规范的中国宗 教,香港的道堂发展更与现代社会的发 展紧密联系……」 以仪式见长的宗教 黎志添教授说:「喃呒先生只是俗称, 正式的称谓应是道长、道士或先生。别 小看他们在丧礼上只是念经和做仪式, 光是学会全套的『科仪』(指具有规则 的仪式),便至少花上好几年的时间。 从宋代开始,要成为正式道士,正一派 道士必须先取得江西龙虎山天师府颁 授的道牒或执照,或获得官府所授的 道牒。 「时至今日,政教分离,再没有由政府发 放执照的制度。虽然没有客观的考核标 准,但一般专业道士都是经个别师承, 学满出师后才能成为全职道士。这形成 道教极具行业性质规范的独特传统,也 是道教与其他宗教不同之处。」 道堂附设骨灰龛 香港特色 「追溯香港道堂的历史发展,会发现它 紧贴我们的生活和社会变化。」黎教授 补充。现时香港约有150间道堂,许多是 1949年前由广东南部迁来的,包括著名 的黄大仙祠、蓬瀛仙馆、青松观、圆玄学 院和云泉仙馆等。这些道堂南迁时规模 仍小,且是民间宗教团体,资源不多, 早期的发展很有限。 and protocols of the ritual programmes and the liturgical texts. Since the Song (960–1279 AD) dynasty, a Daoist master was required to have a registration certificate or license conferred by the Heavenly Master office at Mount Longhu in Jiangxi or issued by the local government. ‘Today, however, there is an apprentice system at work. A disciple becomes a full-time working Daoist master upon completion of his apprenticeship with his teacher-master. This professionalism and the unique liturgical role of Daoist masters distinguish Daoism from other religions.’ Serving the Community There are now about 150 Daoist temples in Hong Kong, many of which had moved here from Southern Guangdong before 1949. Some of the better-knowns are Wong Tai Sin Temple, Fung Ying Seen Koon, Ching Chung Koon, the Yuen Yuen Institute and Wun Chuen Sin Koon. Due to scanty resources, their early development had been limited. Prof. Lai pointed out, ‘The 70s was a turning point. With the economic takeoff of Hong Kong and the resultant rise in the income of its citizens, proceeds from funeral services grew rapidly. As the population rose, the goverment was unable to meet the demand for columbaria which was used to store the cremated remains of the deceased. Daoist temples began to offer such services and it brought in ( To be continued ) ‘D aoism, a religion indigenous to China, has been the core of Chinese religious thinking ever since the Eastern Han (25–220 AD) period. Daoism is the only religious tradition in China that is characterized by its liturgical function. The development of Daoist temples in Hong Kong is closely related to that of local society…’ A Liturgical Religion Prof. Lai explained, ‘The proper title of the so-called nahm mouh is Daoist master ( daoshi ). It would take a good number of years for them to learn all the rules (续下页) 探索中国文化的钥匙— 与港人同度生死祸福的 道 教 Through Thick and Thin — Development of Daoism in Hong Kong 什么是道教?大部分香港人会首先想到驱鬼、打斋、喃呒先生。 仅此而已?文化及宗教研究系道教文化研究中心主任黎志添教授 细说其详。 How much do you know about Daoism? Most of us may associate it with exorcistic rites, da chai rituals or nahm mouh ritual masters, but is that all there is to it? Prof. Lai Chi-tim, director of the Centre for the Studies of Daoist Culture, CUHK, has this to say: 「道 供诸天 Making offering to all heavenly deities

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