Newsletter No. 362

12 No. 362, 4.9.2010 蒲慕州 Prof. Poo Mu-chou Professor of History 下回〈十方吐露〉将访问苏钥机教授 Prof. So York-kee Clement, will be featured in the next instalment of ‘TEN QUESTIONS FOR’. 预告 Coming 1 你为何会钟情于埃及学? How did you come to be interested in Egyptology? 古埃及有着比中国更悠久的历史,很早 已发展出高度文明,这令我着迷不已。 因此,我在台湾大学取得历史学士学位 后便留学美国,先后在布朗大学和约翰 霍浦金斯大学攻读埃及学。初到布朗 时,一些台湾去的同学还以为我是学生 物的,因为Egyptology(埃及学)听起 来与Entomology(昆虫学) 有点像。 The ancient Egyptians, with a history longer than that of the Chinese and a civilization developed to a high level of sophistication very early on, held a lot of fascination for me. After completing my first degree in history from National Taiwan University, I went overseas to pursue postgraduate studies in Egyptology, first at Brown University, then at Johns Hopkins University. When I first arrived at Brown, my classmates from Taiwan thought that I was studying a kind of biological science, since the term ‘Egyptology’ rang like ‘Entomology’. 2 研究埃及学对现今世界有何意义? What is the significance of the study of Egyptology in the context of the modern world? 当代各种媒体对古埃及的经常关注是很明显的,古埃及 的雄伟遗迹和精美文物经常是关注的重心。对于现代人 而言,埃及文明的古老既引发我们内心一种既谦卑又兴奋 的感觉,也给我们震撼和疑惑:我们一方面被建造那些遗 迹所花费的巨大人力物力所震撼,一方面也对于是谁,为 了何种原因,又为了谁而建造那些遗迹而产生许多疑惑。 It is easy to see the tremendous media attention paid to ancient Egypt. The splendour of the monuments and the artifacts are often the focus of attention. For us ‘modern’ people, the depth of time that ancient Egypt invokes in us is humbling and exciting at the same time, not to mention all the monuments that could inspire awe and doubt—awe because of the tremendous energy and wealth spent on them, doubt because of our desire to know the purpose of these monuments: who built for whom, for what purpose, and why. 3 埃及五千年的历史中,哪段时期是你特别关注的? Is there a particular period in the 5,000-year history of Egypt that you pay special attention to? 我开始做研究时,专注于约在公元前四世纪开始的希腊 罗马时期。在这段时期,外国势力,尤其是波斯人、希腊人 和罗马人相继入侵并统治埃及,埃及的古代宗教信仰和习 俗受到挑战和修改。在此期间,在希腊罗马世界和近东发 轫和壮大的哲学和宗教学派数不胜数。 When I began my study, my concentration was on the Greco-Roman period, which began around the 4th century BC. It is a period of immense academic interest as ancient religious beliefs and rituals came to be challenged and modified by foreign forces attacking and overrunning Egypt, notably the Persians, the Greeks and the Romans. It was also a time when numerous schools of philosophical and religious beliefs emerged and bloomed, both in the Greco-Roman world and in the Near East. 4 埃及学能吸引中大学生的兴趣吗? How do you think the reception of Egyptology would be among CUHK students? 2005年我曾来香港为台北的国家地理频道做一个有关古 夫金字塔中密室的节目。当时香港民众非常热烈,塞满了 展览大堂。今年4月我在香港中央图书馆做的博文讲座, 以及在新亚书院文化晚餐的讲演,也都有许多学生、家长 和校友参加。三年前我来客座时的学生中也有人出国去读 埃及学,由此可见,古埃及文明这门极富挑战性的学问, 显然渐渐得到本地学生青睐。 In 2005 I was invited to come to Hong Kong to do a programme for the National Geographic Channel of Taipei on the secret chamber in the Great Pyramid in Khufu in Giza. The Hong Kong audience at the display hall was very enthusiastic. Both the Bowen Public Lecture that I gave at the Central Library and the Cultural Dinner Talk at New Asia College last April were delivered to crowds of enthusiastic audience. I have been approached by students not only from Hong Kong, but also from China and Taiwan, inquiring about the possibility of studying Egyptology at CUHK. And some students who studied with me three years ago when I visited CUHK actually went abroad to study Egyptology. So apparently the challenge of ancient Egyptian civilization is gradually building up its attraction for students here. 5 在香港推广埃及学有哪些主要障碍? What do you see as the major hurdles in promoting Egyptology in Hong Kong? 在香港,获取资讯十分容易,学生也有足够的兴趣和知识 准备。唯一要克服的是,面对一个如此远古的文明,他们 难免会视之为畏途而踟蹰不前。我认为要培养年轻人积极 喜欢埃及学,除了提供好的入门书籍和课程,可能应出版 文法书籍和字典,也许我应计划编纂世界首部中文和古埃 及象形文的字典。 In Hong Kong, as information is easily available, there is no lack of interest or intellectual readiness among students, although they have to overcome a kind of psychological deterrence, when it comes to a civilization that is so ancient and remote. The first step in the way of preparing young people for positive interest in Egyptology, besides providing them with good introductory books and courses, lies perhaps in the publication of grammar books and dictionaries. Maybe I should start on planning for the first Chinese/ Hieroglyph dictionary in the world. 6 中国人和古埃及人对死后世界的看法有何 异同? How do Chinese and ancient Egyptian beliefs and practices compare with regard to life after death? 古代中国人对死后世界有两种概念,一是 人死后一片空无,那是 人类经验无法知道的国 度;另外是以生人世界 为模型建立的一种死 后世界概念。对于死后世界的种 种,古埃及人的描述或许更为 细致,显示他们对死后世界的 一切有丰富的想像。古埃及人相信死后要 接受审判。地狱的概念在古埃及信仰中非 常突出,反之,古代中国人对于人死后往 何处去虽有一些想法,但没有很明确一致 的概念,直至佛教传来之后始有所改变。 In ancient China, the idea of a life after death would either take the form of a void, a realm that was unknown to human experience, or would otherwise be modeled after the world of the living. The ancient Egyptians were perhaps more articulate about things in the life after death, professing a belief in a wildly imaginative and yet neatly structured demonology in the nether world. The ancient Egyptians believed in judgment after death. The idea of hell was very pronounced in ancient Egyptian belief, whereas the ancient Chinese did not have a very developed idea of where the soul of the wretched would go after death until the arrival of Buddhism. 7 你对古埃及的祭祀用酒甚有研究。你也嗜杯中物吗? You have done extensive research on the liturgical use of wine in ancient Egypt. Are you a wine-lover yourself? 古埃及人除了以葡萄酿酒,也以大麦制啤酒。他们在祭祀 中以酒祭神,是因为酒能使人醺醉,并能引发出神状态或 幻觉,此外,红色的葡萄酒也象征血。 我在做有关埃及法老时代祭祀用酒的研究时,其实并不喝 酒,所以同学们都开玩笑说我的研究不可靠。但我现在是 比从前有经验多了。 The wine of the ancient Egyptians was grape wine, and they also made beers from grains. It was used liturgically as libations to the gods owing to the religious significance derived from its ability to intoxicate and induce trance or hallucinations, as well as its red colour which resembled blood. Beer was drunk by the common man in large quantities as evidenced by the abundance of earthenware jars for its storage. When I was writing my works on the liturgical use of wine in Pharaonic Egypt, I did not drink. My friends used to comment in jest that my study was not very reliable. I am more experienced now than before. 8 你对中大学生的观感如何? What are your observations on CUHK students? 他们有从事学术研究的优势。他们两文三语的能力,是邻 近地区学生艳羡不已的条件。中大的书院和交换学生制 度,提供学生绝佳的学习和生活环境。 They are in a very advantageous position for academic pursuits. Their bi-literacy and tri-lingualism place them in a position that could only be the envy of students in neighbouring regions. The college and exchange student system provide students with excellent environments to live and to study. 9 可否介绍一下中大学生和校友的埃及之旅? Can you tell us more about the proposed tour to Egypt for CUHK students and alumni? 这趟旅程是由比较及公众史学文学硕士毕业同学会主 办的,我会举办行前讲座并随团讲解。为期十一天的旅 程会到访上下埃及的重要历史遗迹。这趟考察之旅会在 2010年圣诞节前出发,详情可向该同学会查询: www. alumni.cuhk.edu.hk/aahcp/ 。 This is being organized by the MA Alumni Association of the History Department, and I will be providing pre-tour lectures as well as giving lectures on site. It will be an 11- day tour covering major historical sites in Lower and Upper Egypt. The tour will leave Hong Kong shortly before Christmas 2010, and details are to be obtained from the association: www. alumni.cuhk.edu.hk/aahcp/ . 10 闲暇时你有何消遣? What is your favourite pastime? 我喜欢音乐、电影、小说,也拉小提琴, 能和朋友一起玩玩室内乐,是一大快事。 我也爱听中东音乐,可惜古埃及的音乐大 都没有流传下来。 I am very interested in music, movies, and novels. I play the violin, and I greatly enjoy playing chamber music with friends. I also like the music of the Middle East, but I am afraid not much of the music of the ancient Egyptians has come down to us. 历史学讲座教授

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