Newsletter No. 366

8 No. 366, 4.11.2010 Prof. Wu Wei shan 下回〈十方吐露〉将访问莫树锦教授 Prof. Mok Shu-kam Tony will be featured in the next instalment of ‘TEN QUESTIONS FOR’. 预告 Coming 1 可以谈一下和中大结缘的经过吗? How did you become acquainted with CUHK? 早在1997年,田家炳先生曾带我到中大校园看看。2000年, 我趁来港之便,顺道参观了中大,从那时候起就跟中大续 有交流。两年后,金耀基校长访问南京大学,看到我大量 的作品,后来就透过龚雪因先生访问学人计划请我到新亚 书院讲课。我又先后造了钱穆、李福善、李卓敏、杨振宁、 饶宗颐等先生的像,今年是高锟教授。 In 1997, Mr. Tin Ka-ping took me to the CUHK campus to have a look. In 2000, I paid a visit to the campus while in Hong Kong, and this kicked off my interactions with the University. In 2002, Prof. Ambrose Y.C. King, impressed by my works which he saw at Nanjing University, invited me to lecture at New Asia College as a S.Y. Chung Visiting Fellow. I have sculpted the likeness of personages connected with the University, including Ch’ien Mu, Li Fook-sean Simon, Choh-ming Li, Yang Chen-ning, Jao Tsung-i, and this year, Charles K. Kao. 2 中大是否摆放雕塑的理想环境? Is the University an ideal venue for sculptures? 中大是块科学与人文结合的宝地,背靠五千年中华文化, 面对国际社会发展,容得下饶公这种文化巨人,也容得下 高锟教授这种前瞻的科学伟人,是一个最适合放雕像的地 方。今天,每位中大人实际上都是用这种精神为自己、也 是为中文大学的整体塑造一尊雕像。 The Chinese University is a hallowed land where science meets the humanities. Backed by 5,000 years of Chinese culture and guided by a vision of international development, it has accommodated cultural and scientific visionaries such as Jao and Kao. This makes CUHK an ideal haven for sculptures. In fact this very spirit is fueling all members of the University to sculpt their own future as well as the University’s future. 3 李卓敏校长雕像的选址可有特别意义? Is there any reason behind the choice of venue for founding Vice-Chancellor Dr. Choh-ming Li’s sculpture? 中国文化研究所建筑风格融合中西古今,庭院里有鱼有水 有小桥,我建议种一棵树,让李先生坐在旁边,寓意前人 种树,后人乘凉。这树当初不容易种,因为土不深,旁边 是水泥地,现在长得生气勃勃,就像中大艰苦奋斗才有今 天。香港过去是文化沙漠,中大恰如沙漠上建起来的一片 绿洲,创校校长的像放在这里,饶富意义。 The Institute of Chinese Studies (ICS) features Chinese and Western, ancient and modern architectural styles. The courtyard has a pond with fish and a bridge. I suggested planting a tree there for Dr. Li to sit next to, implying that our ancestors sowed the seeds so descendants can enjoy the shade. Planting the tree was difficult, because the soil was shallow and there was concrete right beside it. But it’s thriving now, just like the University after weathering the storms. The Chinese University was an oasis in the cultural desert that was Hong Kong. This makes the ICS an apt location for the statue of its founding Vice-Chancellor. 4 城市雕塑应有什么功能? What functions should urban sculptures carry? 城市雕塑的首要功能不是美化,还有艺术性的精神导向, 要为城市塑造纪念和标记,譬如与城市关系重大的历史 人物和时刻。像布鲁塞尔的《小尿童》,小小的一个铜像却 成为二次世界大战的爱国象征;又如中国的人民英雄纪念 碑,都与历史有关。 The main function of urban sculptures is not to beautify. They are art pieces that give spiritual guidance. They serve as landmarks and they commemorate historical figures in a city or important moments in the city’s development. The small bronze sculpture Manneken Pis (‘urinating little boy’) has become a symbol of patriotism in Brussels. The Monument to the People’s Heroes in China is also tied to history. 5 你曾谈到城市雕塑的科学管理;艺术是可以管理的吗? You talked about the scientific management of urban sculptures. Can art be managed? 中国近年高速发展,很多城市都利用雕塑作为文化建设 的体现,但人才有限,全国持有从事城市级雕塑的许可证 的只一千多人,可城市有六百多个,需求量大,作品质素参 差,放置凌乱。作为艺术,创作是自由的;但是作为城市公 共艺术的一部分,还是要符合广大市民的期望、时代的要 求。怎样去做,摆放的地点与时间,都应有策划和管理。 China has been advancing rapidly and sculptures are often used to showcase cultural development in its cities. Yet there are only some 1,000 people with permits to do urban sculpture in the whole country, and over 600 cities, so standards vary and there’s no regulation governing their placement. Artists should have free reign to create art but when this art occupies an urban public space, it should meet the expectations of that city and certain requirements, such as how it should be done, where and when to show it. These should be planned and managed. 6 塑像的邀请无日无之,取舍的准则在哪里? How do you choose which commissions to accept? 作为艺术,可为任何人造像。但是作为历史的认可,这个 人物一定要有功有德有言,否则就不值得。我们不要把有 限的空间和时间用在没有意义的事情上。我所雕塑的人物 都对人类有大大小小的贡献。在中国、在国际上都有人出 非常多的钱让我造像,我都谢绝了。而我想中文大学订下 的标准也就是我的标准。 If it’s purely art, you can do a sculpture of anyone. But if it’s a historical sculpture, the subject has to be someone who has made an impact and who is virtuous. We should not waste time and space on meaningless things. All my subjects have contributed in ways big or small to humanity. I have turned down numerous requests from China and overseas. I believe CUHK’s criteria for commissioning a sculpture is also my criteria. 7 怎样入手雕塑人像? How do you begin sculpting a figure? 我对杨振宁先生和饶公很熟悉,闭上眼睛也能想像他们的 样子,但不少人都对他们有主观印象。我要把对这个人的 认识浓缩,找到最能代表的动作神情,透过雕塑表现他的 精神,但不是停留于个人的观感,还要考虑到别人和对象 本人的感受。譬如跟李福善先生造像,我认为大法官该是 很严肃的,但他不以为然,希望可带点笑容,我接纳了他的 意见,效果让他很满意。 I am familiar with Prof. Yang Chen-ning and Prof. Jao Tsung-i. I can imagine their faces with my eyes closed. But many people have different impressions of them. I need to distill my knowledge of the person, identify the most representative expression or posture, and use my work to convey his essence. I shouldn’t just consider my personal impression. When sculpting for Mr. Li Fook-sean Simon, I had thought that a judge should be solemn, but he, on the other hand, favoured a smiling mien. I complied and he was very happy with the result. 8 怎样决定用什么雕塑手法? How do you decide on the style? 这是因对象的特征而异的。我造《老子》,十八米高,腹部 中空,人走得进去,那就是把他概念化:虚怀若谷,又包容万 象。英国费茨威廉博物馆收藏的《孔子》,淳厚正气,是强调 伦理的一个文化符号,造型没有琐碎细节,就造成一个纪念 碑。至于《鲁迅》,刀法强硬爽快,就像鲁迅的硬骨头。 It depends on the subject. The Loazi sculpture is 18m tall and hollow. You can go inside it. The idea is to turn him into the concepts he embodies: humility and tolerance. Confucius , which was acquired by the Fitzwilliam Museum in England, has an honest and upright visage—a monument-like ethical symbol with no excessive details. As for Lu Xun , the cuts are as strong as his will. 9 出色雕塑家有什么条件? What makes a great sculptor? 首先要有理想,跟民族、整个人类共通,第二要有广博深 厚的文化修养,第三要有高度技巧。三者融会,缺一不可。 艺术创作要能反映人文主义精神、成为时代标记,必须对 人类文化有认识,才会站得高,内涵才会深。 You need to have ideals, to be connected with the nation and with humanity. You also need to be deeply cultured and technically strong. An artistic creation should reflect the humanistic spirit and become an emblem of the times. Breadth of perspective and depth of substance require understanding of human culture. 10 那你本人的文化滋养来自哪里? Your influences? 我1962年出生于文化世家,适逢文化大革命,但家父还是 每天让我背一首古诗,才能吃早饭上学,我倒不以为苦, 还念出兴趣来。家中藏书丰富,我自小随便翻看。父亲有 一个小本子,把《红楼梦》等名著里一些警句抄下来给我 们看。这样薰陶下来,对古文化产生了情感。我自九十年代 开始出国,去过五十多个国家,看过各种博物馆,丰富了自 己。我谈不上广博深厚,但对文学、心理学、哲学、艺术学 都有所涉足;油画、国画、版画、书法、雕塑都做过,也在 大学教过书,接触过不同文化背景的人。在创作过程中,把 这些感受不自觉的鎔铸到作品里,含量自然就不一样。 I was born in 1962 to a cultured family. Although it was the Cultural Revolution, my father would make me recite a classical poem every day before breakfast and school. I actually grew to enjoy it. We had many books at home which I was in the habit of flipping through as a child. They left an impression on me even if I didn’t understand the words. My father kept a notebook on which he had written down quotes from classics. Growing up in this environment, I became interested in ancient culture. I began, in the 1990s, to travel outside the country. I’ve been to some 50 counties, visited various museums. I’m not erudite but I have some knowledge of literature, psychology, philosophy and art studies. I’ve done oils, ink and brush, woodblock printing, calligraphy, and sculpture. I’ve taught in universities and met people from different cultural backgrounds. To have these influences going into one’s work, albeit imperceptibly, is enriching. 吴为山