Newsletter No. 435

12 No. 435, 4.4.2014 何谓实证为本的教育改革? 教育和其他社会制度一样,必须与时俱进,有所变化和改 革。任何教育发展的新方向,都必须以实证为依据,研究 人员、实践者和政策制订者都参与在内。为令政策制订 者在实行和改进教育计划时,能作出明智决定,除了比较 抽象的知识外,还必须以有组织的方式为他们提供确凿 证据。 什么是Success for All(SFA)计划? SFA计划由约翰霍普金斯大学的学者开发,是以研究为依 据的改革模式。目的是从幼年时期开始提高美国学生的读 写能力。计划背后的思想是:阅读技巧是儿童整体学业成 就的主要基础。我与约翰霍普金斯、威斯康辛大学麦迪逊 分校、协和大学和英国约克大学的研究人员合作,探讨此 计划成效。我们发现,藉着历时数年的循序渐进读写能力 教学,可以做到全面的学校层面改革,还能有针对地提高 学生成绩。 你还做了哪些相关工作? 我其后参与约翰霍普金斯大学Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education(CDDRE)的工作,这个中心创造 了地区层面的改革模式,为美国七个州内五十九个地区的 地方领袖担任顾问,教导他们如何有策略地运用数据,并 选择已证明有效的计划。这项为期四年的大规模研究,证 实以下变化模式是有帮助的:这种包括初期谘询和实施 基准评核的模式,可以促使学校领导采取有确凿证据证明 其有成效的计划。另有发现显示,学校若选择有确凿证据 证明有效的阅读计划,学生的阅读能力会优于没采用这 类计划的学校。 你为何设立「效证最佳教育计划大全」网站? 要实现实证为本的改革,有关教育介入手法和方案的研究 结合也十分关键,并且对于政策愈来愈重要。由于我在 SFA计划和CDDRE做过相关研究,又对于实证为本的教 育改革一直兴趣甚深,我与约翰霍普金斯和约克大学的 同事,在美国和英国设立了方便教育工作者使用的网站 ( www.bestevidence.org ; www.bestevidence.org.uk ) , 把经研究证明有效的计划加以推广,并方便实践者和教 育家获取资讯。 为何想到把这个计划搬到香港实行? 我想知道香港是否能实行相同的阅读计划,使学习英语 的华人小学生受惠。因此我邀请约翰霍普金斯、香港浸会 大学和香港城市大学的学者合作,实行为期一年的先导 计划,把计划本地化,并评估其在香港的成效。 有何发现? 虽然先导计划的学生样本比较小,但已见到可观的结 果。SFA计划本是为以英语为母语的学生设计,但结果显 示,经过「本地化」的计划对于母语非英语的学生同样有 效。研究得出的数据证明,只要经过一些修改,这个计划 可以转用于不同的文化和语言环境。先导计划也奠下了 基础,有助日后进行质化和长期的纵观研究,以使香港能 采用经过本地化的同类计划,像美国一样享受节省成本 的好处。 你认为该如何在香港推广实证为本的教育改革? 许多人以为实证为本的做法只是学者的事。其实,为了令 实证为本的改革能够在香港实现,学者、业内和政策制订 者必须同心合力,利用严谨的研究方法检视现有做法的成 效,鼓励开发崭新的介入手段,并把经科学方法验证的介 入方法,广泛应用于教室之中。 教育行政与政策学系 张志强教授 Alan C.K. Cheung Department of Educational Administration and Policy What is evidence-based education reform? Like every other social institution, education must change, progress and reform itself with the times. Any new direction in the development of education must be based on evidence involving the collective efforts of researchers, practitioners and policy-makers. To facilitate policy- makers to make informed decisions in implementing or enhancing educational programmes, concrete evidence, in addition to intangible know-how, must be made available in a structured manner. What is the Success for All (SFA) programme? The SFA programme is a research-based reform model developed by scholars at Johns Hopkins University. It was designed to improve the literacy capacity of students from an early age in the US. The thinking behind the programme is that reading skills provide a critical part of the foundation for children’s overall academic success. I had collaborated with researchers at Johns Hopkins, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Concordia University and the University of York (UK) to study the effectiveness of the programme. We found that comprehensive school-level reform and targeted student-level achievement could be obtained through a multi-year sequencing of literacy instruction. What other related work did you do? I then took part in the work at the Centre for Data- Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE) at Johns Hopkins which had created a district-level reform model providing consultation to district leaders in 59 districts in seven states of the US on strategic use of data and selection of proven programmes. This large-scale four-year longitudinal study supports a model of change in which initial consultation and implementation of benchmark assessments motivate school leaders to adopt programmes with good evidence of effectiveness. The findings also reveal that reading effects were larger for schools that selected reading programmes with good evidence of effectiveness than for those that did not. Why did you create the Best-Evidence Encyclopedia website? For evidence-based reform to work, syntheses of research on educational interventions and programmes are also critical and have taken on increasing policy importance. Based on my research on SFA and at CDDRE and my continuing interest in evidence-based education reform, my colleagues at Johns Hopkins and York and I created an educator-friendly website in both the US and the UK ( www. bestevidence.org ; www.bestevidence.org.uk ) to promote the use of research proven programmes with strong evidence of effectiveness and to make the information more accessible to practitioners and educators. Why would you want to replicate the programme in Hong Kong? After my research in the US, I began to wonder if the same reading programme could be implemented in Hong Kong to benefit Chinese primary school students learning English. Therefore I invited my collaborators from Johns Hopkins, Hong Kong Baptist University and City University of Hong Kong to embark on a one-year pilot programme to localize the programme and evaluate its effectiveness in Hong Kong. What did you find? Although the pilot programme only involved a small sample of students it nevertheless produced significant results. While the SFA programme was designed for students whose mother-tongue was English, it was shown that the ‘localized’ programme worked equally well with students whose first language was not English. The data provided by the research proves that the programme can be transferred to different cultural and language contexts with some adaptations. The pilot project also paved the way for a more qualitative, longer term and longitudinal research so that Hong Kong can enjoy the same cost- saving benefits as the US through a localized similar programme. As you see it, how evidence-based reform in education can be promoted in Hong Kong? Many people believe that evidence-based practice is the concern of the academics only. However, in order to make evidence-based reform work in Hong Kong, academics, practitioners, and policy makers need to make a concerted effort to use rigorous research methods to examine the effectiveness of our current practices, to encourage the development of new innovative interventions, and to promote the use of scientifically proven interventions in our classrooms.

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