Newsletter No. 483

02 # 4 8 3 | 1 9 . 0 9 . 2 0 1 6 自 Po k émo n Go 今年7月推出以来,这款基于GPS定位技术、应用扩增实境 (augmented reality,简称AR)的手机游戏疯卷全球,大批精灵训练员「日夜锻炼 去取胜」,令香港各区的公园比中秋节还热闹,也衍生出光怪陆离的新闻标题—「宅男终 出山捉精灵脱毒」、「青年辞工全力捉妖」等,极尽荒诞。 无论是 Pokémon Go 玩家抑或非玩家,都很难言明究竟是何种魔力驱使男女老幼在烈日下 步行数公里,孵化虚幻无实的精灵蛋。中大心理学系 许展明 教授专研动机心理学,他提供 以下五个解释: 1.人脑喜欢新鲜感。 当我们遇到新刺激,大脑中的奖赏系统会产生愉悦感。就 Pokémon Go 而言,它给人带来的新刺激就是扩增实境。「 P okémon Go 是首款将AR技术 主流化的游戏,大部分人透过这免费程式初尝AR滋味,大人小孩都迫不及待体验透过实景 镜头捕捉虚拟精灵是怎样的感觉。」 2.怀旧情怀作祟。 游戏勾起很多看《宠物小精灵》动画长大的八九十后的童年回忆。 别以为恋旧等同对过去无谓的耽溺,许教授指出追忆往事有助我们继续前行。「怀旧的人 希望把过去、现在与将来的自己连成一线。玩 Pokémon Go 令我们忆起有趣的卡通情节或 当年一起追剧的好伙伴,这些回忆能增强当下的正向情绪,提升自信,并促进人与人的连 系。」这位八十后教授如是说;《宠物小精灵》九十年代末热播之时,他还在念中学。 3.人类天生爱互动。 当训练员四出游走捉精灵时,放眼望去都是举着手机面带微笑 的同路人,共同嗜好令陌生人之间也很容易打开话匣子。「这游戏成功让本来互不相识的 城市人变得有说有笑。研究指出,面对面的交流比起电子沟通更有利心理健康。」 4.愈难掌握愈想掌握,愈是稀缺愈想拥有。 机会愈是不确定和稀缺,愈是令 人兴奋和珍惜。一方面,玩家无从得知下一刻将在屏幕跳出哪只小精灵,这种对未来收获 的不确定增加了兴奋感。另一方面,在总数一百五十一只小精灵中,有些CP值(攻击力)较 高,表示品种稀有且难以捕捉。当我们成功将「稀宠」收入球内,成功感与优越感便油然 而生。这就是大家甘愿攀山涉水追击「启暴龙」,或是胆敢潜入殡仪馆搜索「鬼斯通」的 重要原因。 5.羊群效应不容忽视。 我们都受着身边人的一举一动 影响,因此当大众都在玩 Pokémon Go ,没人希望成为落 单那个。「我相信很多人其实并非真心对这游戏感兴 趣,但碍于朋辈压力或是害怕跟他人缺乏共同话题, 便不由自主跟随大流。」许教授解释道。 虽然 Pokémon Go 魅力难挡,但这股热潮最近几星期似已逐渐退烧,用家数目锐减三分 一,许教授再次归因于大脑处理新讯息的方式:AR面世之初确曾让我们欢喜若狂,但一旦 大脑开始习惯这玩意,新鲜感便随之消退。「游戏开发者应考虑注入新元素,例如允许玩 家与好友交换精灵或对战,以保持新鲜感,同时填补人们对社交互动的无尽需要。」 S ince being released in July, Pokémon Go , a location-based, augmented-reality mobile game, has taken the world by storm. It has phone-wielding players flooding parks and public spaces late into the summer night, and generated surreal spectacles on news media such as hordes of socially awkward teenagers venturing out of their homes for the first time in years to hunt Pokémon, and adults quitting their plum jobs to become full-time players. The phenomenon has left us, Go players and non-players alike, mystified. What on earth has possessed fans of all ages who walk miles to hatch fictional monster eggs? Hui Chin-ming , a CUHK psychology professor who specializes in motivational psychology, offers five explanations. 1. The human brain feeds on novelty. The reward system in our brain creates the experience of pleasure when we encounter a new stimulus which in the Go case means the game’s augmented reality (AR) approach. ‘ Go is one of the first-ever mainstream applications of AR. Thanks to the free game, many have tried the novel technology for the first time. Kids and adults alike are eager to get their first taste of how it feels to catch digital monsters superimposed on a physical world,’ said Professor Hui. 2. The game provides a fair amount of nostalgia for fans who grew up with the Pokémon franchise. While many assume nostalgia means an indulgent looking back to the past, Professor Hui said it actually helps us to move on. ‘Nostalgia is a desire to connect one’s past, present and future selves. Playing Go reminds us of the fun cartoon we used to watch and the people we used to watch it with. Such a reminder can increase positive emotion, enhance self-esteem and foster social connectedness with others,’ said the young professor who was a teenager when Pokémon peaked in popularity in the late ’90s. 3. Human beings are hardwired for connection. When players are walking around their neighbourhoods looking for Pokémon, they run into one another. A shared love of the game makes for easy conversation even between strangers. ‘It’s a 捉精灵 捉心理 The Psychology of Pokémon Go

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